Citing Online Articles in APA
Since online materials can potentially change URL's, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available. DOI's are an attempt to provide stable links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. APA states this it is not necessary to include the database in a citation because databases change over time (p. 192). However, some of VVC's database subscriptions use URLs that do not identify the name of the database, so we include the database in these examples. Students should check with their instructor regarding citation requirements and formats.
- Use the DOI number when provided for sources found on the Internet.
- Use the database name for articles found in VVC Library Databases.
Example: Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
- Use the URL for articles without a DOI and all other Internet sources.
Example: Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Magazine article from an online database - Academic Search Premier [APA 7.01.08]
Shah, N. (2012, May 23). Teenage birthrates. Education Week, 31(32), 5. Retrieved from
Academic Search Premier database.
Scholarly journal article from an online database (volume with continuous pagination and DOI) Academic Search Premier [APA 7.01.01]
Fischer-Betz, R., Specker, C., Brinks, R., & Schneider, M. (2012). Pregnancy outcome in patients
with antiphospholipid syndrome after cerebral ischaemic events: an observational study.
Lupus, 21, 1183-1189. doi:10.1177/0961203312451335
Scholarly journal article from an online database (each issue in volume starts with page 1 and no DOI) Academic Search Premier [APA 7.01.03]
Mohammad, M., & Mohammad, H. (2012). Computer integration into the early childhood curriculum.
Education, 133(1), 97-116. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Newspaper article online database - Newspaper Source Plus and LexisNexis Academic [APA 7.01.11]
Olsen, S. (2010, June 10). When to buy your child a cell phone. New York Times, p. 6. Retrieved
from Newspaper Source Plus database.
Krueger, C. (2008, March 10). Alzheimer’s, Down’s link sheds light. St. Petersburg Times
(Florida), p. 1B. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.
Article from an online database - CQ Researcher [APA 7.01.01]
Billitteri, T. (2009, October 16). Human spaceflight: Are missions to the moon and Mars
feasible? CQ Researcher, 19(36), 861-884. Retrieved from CQ Researcher database.
Electronic Book Citation: eBook Collection (EBSCOHost) [APA 7.02.20]
Black, B., & Weisel, G.J. (2010). Global warming. Retrieved from eBook Collection (EBSCOHost)
Book chapter from an online database - Opposing Viewpoints in Content [APA 7.02]
Paluzzi, P., & Kahn, A. (2009). Abuse in childhood impacts the sexual, reproductive, and
parenting behaviors of young men. In H. Williams (Ed.), Opposing viewpoints: Child
abuse. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.
Article from an online encyclopedia [APA 7.02.29]
Guignon, C. B. (2004). Existentialism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy.
Retrieved from Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy database.
Internet source - Online scholarly journal article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) [APA 7.01.01]
Johnson, C. P., Myers, S.M., & Council on Children with Disabilities. (2007). Identification and
evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1183-1215.
Internet source - Online magazine article [APA 7.01.08]
Barrett, J. (2007, December 5). The price of childhood obesity. Newsweek. Retrieved
Internet source - Government or corporate report [APA 7.01.31]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Skin cancer prevention. Retrieved
Internet source - No date on source [APA 7.03.34]
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). Climate observation and monitoring.
Retrieved from http://www.noaa.gov/climate.html
Internet source - Sponsored by institution or university [APA 7.03.34]
Riddle, L. (2009, April 29). Biographies of women mathematicians. Retrieved from Agnes
College website: http://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/alpha.htm
Click here to automatically cite a Book.
How to Cite a Book in Print in APA
Last, F. M. (Year Published) Book. City, State: Publisher.
James, H. (1937). The ambassadors. New York, NY: Scribner.
Rowling, J.K. (2001). Harry Potter and the socerer's stone. London: Bloomsburg Children's.
How to Cite a Book Online in APA
Last, F. M. (Year Published) Book. Retrieved from URL
James, H. (2009). The ambassadors. Retrieved from http://books.google.com
Porter, R. (1994). London, a social history. Retrieved from http://books.google.com
How to Cite a Book From a Database in APA
Last, F. M. (Year Published). Book. Retrieved from URL
Morem, S. (2005). 101 tips for graduates. Retrieved from http://www.infobasepublishing.com
Bloom, H. (1986). American women poets. Retrieved from http://www.infobasepublishing.com
Make sure to:
- Add doi (Digital Object Identifier) if it is available after at the end of the citation instead of URL.
- If you used an e-reader, you should still include the URL that you retrieved the book from, for example, www.amazon.com.